commentaries on the gallic war

More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Born on July 13, 100 bce into a noble family, Caesar benefited from his family connections, which included an uncle, Gaius Marius, who was a general and seven times occupied the office of consul (the highest ranking government official in Rome). Caesar compares and contrasts the civilized ways of Rome to the barbarism of those he conquers. Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. _____The Conquest of Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War] Trans. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Intended to do more than document events, the commentaries are the product of someone who understood the importance of propaganda to increase his power and to achieve his autocratic ambitions. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. D. McLintock. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. An interest in grammar and style resulted in On Analogy, a lost work in which Caesar advocated the lucid, pristine style used in his two surviving historical works: Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil War. A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul soon turned into a war … It was also common to praise one’s own achievements when dedicating a monument or writing memoirs. Six years later, after being displayed in Caesar’s triumph, he was executed. The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. Citizens often returned home to find their land allotments in ruin. Meanwhile, the yearly reports from Gaul and Britain were adding to Caesar’s growing popularity. Undoubtedly Caesar’s skill as an orator was a powerful factor in his election in 63 bce to pontifex maximus, head of the college of pontiffs. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. A third view argues that the books were produced and published at stages during the campaign, probably yearly. Roman Political Life 90 BC-AD 69. In 56 bce, assuming peace, Caesar heads for Illyricum. The full title on surviving manuscripts of Caesar’s single, continuing set of accounts on the Gallic and Civil Wars is C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum (The Commentaries of C. Julius Caesar on His Achievements). He encourages his Roman audience to believe in his actions and in himself. The praetor peregrinus (alien praetor) dealt with lawsuits involving foreigners. Though the Britons keep bothering his men on the march, Caesar eventually reaches the Thames. But his measures were short-lived as the actions of certain nobles undermined his constitutional reforms. In the subsequent sections Caesar and his legates reduce the remnants of Gallic resistance. A. A. Goldhammer. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. Caesar’s fellow Romans understood that a considerable factor in his rise to power was his rhetorical and literary talent. The narrative paints Vercingetorix as a suitably intelligent and resourceful opponent to the Roman commander. In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. Caesar presents real or imagined threats to ex-plain away his intervention in Gaul. And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium …. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. commentaries on the Gallic War, namely that published in 1918 by Francis W. Kelsey. Finally, failing to engage the Suebi, Caesar returns to Gaul, leaving part of the Roman-built bridge standing as a warning to the Germans. The two works arise out of a chaotic period of self-styled military rulers, growing corruption of governmental processes, gang warfare, and civil war. The English scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that the Commentaries revealed Caesar to be the most complete and unique figure to emerge from antiquity. Nice). After he was elected consul, Marius promptly en-rolled in his army numbers of the urban proletariat, the capite censi, those without the necessary property qualification. J. Tribune of the People (tribunus plebis) A one-year position held by 10 men, charged with In honor of his achievements, the Senate grants Caesar 20 days of public thanksgiving. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. He offers reasons for campaigning outside his province: the Britons have been helping the tribes of Gaul fight the Ro-mans and Rome will gain knowledge of Britain’s land and peoples. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. The events in Caesar’s commentaries unfold in chronological order, always by year and sub-divided by summers and winters, resembling the method characteristic of Roman historiography. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. In the last century or so of Republican life in Rome, “it mattered who was first and who was second” (Wiseman, p. 7). In a demonstration of Roman might, Caesar crosses into Germany in order to deter further German incursions into the They now intended for their works to be publicly disseminated. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980. Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. As one historian remarks, “The Senate was a club, and club members decided whether or not a man had the social profile necessary for membership, whether or not he could add to the prestige of the group” (Veyne, p. 95). He tried to grant Caesar the special privilege of being eligible to stand for the consulship in absentia so that when he finished his Gallic command he could step directly from one office to the next without a year’s interlude that would have left him open to prosecution. Access to the highest magistracies was restricted, even to nobles. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23. Despite the use of the third person for his account, Caesar himself is ever present. In theory, the governance of the Roman state was shared jointly by the Senate and the people of Rome (senatus populusque Romanus). Suddenly a revolt breaks out incited by a member of the Treveri tribe, a Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. His nobility is apparent from the beginning of book seven to the moment that he surrenders willingly to the decision of his own people and to Caesar. Caesar wrote the commentaries on the Gallic War for two main reasons: 1) to put in writing the authoritative account of a very important period in Roman history 2) to justify to the Roman people his military actions in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Gall." Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. A new army and a new general, L. Cassius Longinus, advanced against the Tigurini. These are the tactics of chariot warfare. Book seven is the story of Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of another Celtic tribe, the Arvernians, who becomes the leader of the resistance movement in Gaul. Caesar arrives, resplendent in the scarlet cloak of a general (Gallic War, 7.88), and ends the resistance of the Gallic tribes. A History of Rome. Election to the office of praetor followed. At the age of 25, Pompey joined Sulla and campaigned in Italy, Sicily, and Africa, then refused to disband his army unless he was granted a triumph (a celebratory procession that wound its way through the streets of Rome to the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill). Bohn. Highly recommended. Veyne, Paul, ed. Track Page Views WithAuctiva's FREE Counter Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar draws attention to the significance of the victory and takes the opportunity to display his famous dementia (clemency): So ended this battle, by which the tribe of the Nervii was almost annihilated and their name almost blotted out from the face of the earth. It is clear why the Romans read this so eagerly, and why it helped his popularity in the home front. Gaul is entirely occupied by the Romans. All 53,000 Aduatuci are sold into slavery. was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Nice). After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire . McDevitte and W.S. He crosses the river Axona (now called Aisne) to aid the town of Bibrax. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. “I did not undertake the war,” he said, “for private ends, but in the cause of national liberty. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. Annual reports by Julius Caesar of his campaigns in Gaul and Britain between 58 and 52 bce, published in Latin in the 50s bce, plus a supplement for 51 and 50 bce by Caesar’s genera! In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. Cambridge, Mass. Book Four reminds us of the ever-present German threat to peace in Gaul. No doubt you’ve heard Winston Churchill’s famous quote that “History is written by the victors,” as was the case with the Gallic Wars. by Julius Caesar. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Trans. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. These officials had aides called lictors, who carried bundles of rods, known as fasces (for flogging) and (when the official was a consul) also carried axes (for executions). London: Routledge, 1996. At Rome it must have seemed that the threat posed by the tribes of Gaul would never be averted. Only through instances of individual valor do the Romans retain the camp. Publishing a section of Commentaries on the Gallic War annually at the end of a military campaign season would have enabled Caesar to promote himself to the Roman public and to enhance his immediate political ambitions. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. The highest offices, praetors and consuls, had the right to wage war, to punish citizens, and to impose the death penalty. With the help of the tribunes of the people, he distributed cheap grain to the poor and guaranteed land to his veteran troops. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. His platform rested on the inability of nobles in the Senate to find either a diplomatic or military solution to the conflict in Numidia. The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. The extent to which Caesar may have exceeded the truth of history should be considered in relation not just to the historical events or circumstances that shaped the work. As time passed, generals and politicians recognized that by publishing their commentarii or res gestae they could justify their actions and promote themselves in Rome. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Power became ever more polarized in the hands of Caesar and Pompey. Despite setbacks, Caesar establishes Roman dominion over the area that is modern-day France and the low countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg). Nice). Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. It was customary for Romans to celebrate the resgestae (“things done”) of their ancestors in speeches of praise at funerals and in funerary inscriptions. G. L. Hendrickson. In Rome, the people celebrated. The Romans had a deep-rooted fear of Celtic tribes because of past history. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. But the Roman world was not yet ready for a monarch. Men like Lepidus or Catiline, thwarted in their attempts to gain power or to pass social legislation, raised armies against the state in 78 and 63 bce respectively. On returning to Rome, Caesar was elected to the college of pontiffs (a priesthood with duties ranging from overseeing state sacrifices to serving as an advisory body on sacred law). He had operated outside the limits of his provinces without senatorial authority and, by rights, should have been prosecuted. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. A politician’s self-worth, or dignitas, was closely associated with the glory (gloria) and honor (honos) he attained from military accomplishments and political offices. The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. to Caesar became a pressing issue. ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. Caesar’s narrative is a masterpiece of rhetorical or persuasive composition. After their year of office in Rome, praetors and consuls sometimes governed outside Rome in a province, where they were known as propraetors or proconsuls. Despite a magnificent third triumph, the Senate’s refusal to ratify Pompey’s eastern settlement led him to seek support from equally ambitious nobles. Over one-third of the book is then taken up with a lengthy digression on the differences between the societies of Gaul and Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1957. Rome annexed Nearer Gaul, but matters came to a head in the late second century bce, when two German tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, migrated there. He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. Digressions on the characteristics of the Gauls and Germans are essential to Caesar’s account. In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. At the river Sabis (now Sambre) the ferocity and courage of the Nervii tribe proves a worthy match for Caesar’s legions. In the account and through the account, Caesar emerges as a model of Roman virtue par excellence. By the end of the year Gaul is at peace, and Caesar is rewarded an unprecedented honor—a 15-day period of thanksgiving to the immortal gods. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. In 105 bce at Arausio (modern Orange, France) the combined armies of the Cimbri and Teutones decisively routed the Roman legions of the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Cnaeus Mallius with the reported loss of 80,000 men. The final word of the incomplete manuscript “contendit…” (He strove …) (Gallic War, 8.55; trans. Encyclopedia.com. Parenti, M. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome. 1. Uderzo, Albert. At the river Allia, on July 18, probably in 390 bce, a notorious “black” day (dies nefastus) in the Roman calendar, the Senones inflicted a crushing defeat on Rome’s legions and then sacked the city of Rome, destroying houses, temples, and public records. He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. Cambridge, Mass. ." His troops’ first action is against the Helvetii (chapters 2-29), who have been inspired by their chieftain Orgetorix to migrate from their homeland (in modern-day Switzerland) to Gaul through Roman territory. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. Reports of incursions by two Germanic peoples (the Harudes and the Suebi) inspire Caesar to march north to prevent Ariovistus from capturing a major town of Gaul—Vesontio. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. To make matters worse, there was open gang warfare between their supporters in the streets of Rome, which pre-vented elections being held for 52 bce. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. A law of 180 bce, the lex Villia Annalis, prescribed a fixed order in which magistracies had to be held and also prescribed minimum age limits for each office, The conventional order was quaestor (28), praetor (39), consul (42), and potentially censor (which could only be held after the consulship), al-though a magistrate could also hold the tribunate or aedileship (the former traditionally held before, and the latter after the quaestorship). constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. When they join forces with Vercingetorix, he turns to the Germanic peoples for aid. When the measure to remove Pompey and Caesar from their commands was vetoed, some senators re-quested that Pompey protect the Republic from the ambitions of Caesar. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a In the centuries that followed, Celtic tribes continued to encroach on Italian territory and to offer aid to Rome’s enemies. In 54 Julia died and in 53 Crassus was killed in Parthia, seeking military glory. The former advocated an austere style of oratory. Nice) suspends the narrative indefinitely on the brink of civil war. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. At-tempting to deceive Caesar, the Aduatuci appear to comply but then attack the Romans by night. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. On hearing the news of it, their old men … sent envoys to Caesar and surrendered.... Caesar, wishing to let it be seen that he showed mercy to the unfortunate suppliants, took great care to protect them from harm, confirmed them in possession of their territories and towns, and commanded their neighbours to refrain from injuring their persons or property. To advance his ambitions, he joined forces with Pompey and Crassus in an unofficial political alliance known as “The First Triumvirate,” a pact that foreshadowed the end of the Republic. The Veneti Senate is executed by sword, and the remaining adult males are sold as slaves. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. . 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. Quaestor Financial and administrative officials, the 20 quaestors at the time of the Gallic War maintained public records and oversaw the treasury. As a young man, Julius Caesar served briefly in Asia between 80 and 78 bce before returning to Rome to make a name for himself in the law courts. He avoids coining new words and standardizes the use of vocabulary and grammatical structures. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. They also oversaw markets and weights and measures as well as public festivals and games. Just ten days later, a 400-yard Roman-built bridge spans the Rhine. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. The standard position is that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War were a synthesis of his earlier campaign reports, and that he wrote and published them after the successful completion of business in Gaul in 52-51 bce. Category: Text: EBook-No. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. Situated in 50 bce, each book begins as follows: The year is 50 B.C. The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. It is perhaps an appropriate, if less than satisfying, conclusion. During the second century bce the traditional systems of the Roman Republic began to fracture in the face of protracted foreign wars, an influx of foreign slaves, and extraordinary opportunities for wealth and prestige to be amassed by generals and their legates (military commanders). In A History of Private Life. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. Later he demonstrated how easy it was to pervert the traditional Republican The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). In other arenas his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, including rebels in the territory of Aquitania (in today’s southwest France). The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. ." The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). In Caesar’s time the ancient region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) was inhabited by disparate nations, or tribal groups. Caesar, Julius. Here Caesar confronts the first threat to his command when his inexperienced military tribunes and other high officials search for reasons to avoid combat. Those who are left at home have to support the men in the army as well as themselves, and the next year take their turn of service, while the others stay at home. In general, commentarii were not for publication, but were intended as raw material for the historian. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter. As one historian suggests, he was “presenting him-self in contemporary terms to his fellow Romans as the greatest and most worthy of them, striving beyond all else to outdo his most significant rival, Pompey the Great” (Welch and Powell, p. ix). The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. A. Pompey was granted special authority to deal with the crisis. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. "Commentaries on the Gallic War His success as an orator led to political and social advancements, which by the late 60s bce had placed him among the most important men in the state. Such military and civic distinctions bestowed auctoritas, an authority that entailed the respectful admiration of one’s contemporaries. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. He portrays the Gauls as deserving to be subjected because they lack Roman qualities. Pollio believed that Caesar gave a false account, either purposely or because of a faulty memory (Suetonius, Caesar 56.4). 51586 Commentaries on the Gallic War — Book 1 Julius Caesar. Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. In 78 bce Pompey marched against Lepidus and in 77 bce demanded the power of proconsul to fight in Spain against the rebellious general Sertorius. In this passage, Caesar, who tended to avoid “the unusual word as a sailor avoids a rock,” captures their novelty by his introduction of the nouns essedum (”chariot”) and essadarius (“charioteer”) into the Latin language. Book Summary. Populares These senators used the people to achieve their political aims and objectives, and were often seen as a more democratic and radical groúp. In eighteenth-century France, the value of the Commentaries as a military handbook was not lost on Napoleon Bonaparte, who wanted the work to be part of the education of every general and wrote his own Summary of the Wars of Caesar (Precis des Guerres de Cesar, 1836). After an apologetic preface, Hirtius, Caesar’s general, opens with a verbal reference to books one and seven of the Gallic War: “The whole of Gaul was defeated.” (omni Gallia devictd) (Gallic War, 8.1; trans. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Caesar's books were intended as an aid for future historians - that's why they are officially called Commentaries, and not History of the Gallic War - but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. Beginning with 58 bce, each book narrates one year of campaigning. Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. This gave some relief to the Romans, ever mindful that the Gauls had once sacked Rome. Meanwhile, on the Atlantic coast, Publius Crassus, the son of the triumvir, secures the submission of the maritime tribes. A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. The presence of Marius’s army veterans in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, effectively silenced any opposition. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Others such as Pompey the Great used their popular influence to gain extraordinary commands. Report of the victory causes the rebellious Treveri to call off another planned attack, but they continue to incite rebellion and taunt the Romans. Caésar’s style in the Commentaries is smooth and concise. Brutus. Thus when they fight they have the mobility for cavalry and the staying power of infantry; and with daily training and practice they have become so efficient that even on steep slopes they can control their horses at full gallop, check and turn them in a moment, run along the pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot with incredible speed, (Gallic War 433; trans. Mommsen, Theodor. The first blow is struck by Ambiorix, chieftain of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. The book ends laconically: “After this deed Caesar found Gaul somewhat quieter” (Commentarii rerum gestarum, 5.58; trans. A. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. None understood this more than Caesar’s uncle, Gaius Marius. The excellence of Kelsey’s work is due to its rigor and completeness. The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. A slightly different stance suggests that Caesar wrote the Commentaries in stages but published them all at the same time. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Among the Gallic peoples, Vercingetorix is the Gallic equivalent of Caesar: a capable orator, strategist, and warrior. The latter. The year-by-year publication of the Gallic War was necessary to justify Caesar’s actions to his adoring public and to promote his calculated subjugation of areas outside Roman control. Nice), he acknowledges that Caesar had exceeded the limits of his command. ." Routing the enemy, he presses forward into the territory of other Belgic peoples. Endings are signaled by a return to winter quarters (books 1, 3, 5, and 6) or the more climactic reference to public thanksgivings in Caesar’s honor (2, 4, and 7). The ideal form focused on the doubtful and varying fortunes of an outstanding individual and would contain contrasting emotions of surprise and suspense, joy and distress, hope and fear. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. The annual structure, geographic and ethnographic digressions on the Gauls and Ger-mans, rousing speeches by the Celts and Romans, records of his own and his generals’ achievements, the results of his campaigns—all these suggest the writing of history rather than autobiography. They are fickle and undetermined, rash and frenzied, greedy and lazy. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. By the time of the Gallic War, Rome had decreed that a ten-year interval was necessary between the holdings of the same office. Working closely with the army, tribunes, and the people, Marius’s military successes in Numidia resulted in his election in absentia for the consulship of the Republic in 104 bce. He ends the year harassing the enemy, searching for Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe, and conducting an enquiry into a conspiracy by two Gallic tribes (the Senones and Carnutes). The praetor urbanus (city praetor) was the supreme civil judge of Rome. Vercingetorix was given over to Caesar. New York: New Press, 2003. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. They justify his conquests by encouraging the reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the ways of these foreign nations. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. Cicero’s band, foraging away from the camp, is caught off guard. 53973 Commentaries on the Gallic War Julius Caesar and Aulus Hirtius W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. A. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The leading citizens of Rome could hold a number of political positions as follows, from highest to lowest: Dictator A six-month (or shorter) appointment held by one Roman citizen. A. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Along with the tribes of Britain, Germany, and the Danube region, these nations were known collectively as the Celts. Despite their success, the Britons petition for peace and promise to return hostages. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Germany. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. Language: English: LoC Class: PA: Language and Literatures: Classical Languages and Literature: Subject: Gaul -- History -- Gallic Wars, 58-51 B.C. However, Caesar had an agenda he wished to promote. _____. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. In fact, much of what we know about them comes directly from Julius Caesar himself, in his works (with the exception of the last volume) entitled Commentarii de Bello Gallico, or Commentaries on the Gallic War. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. Vol. They are ironic in view of the tumultuous events then happening in Rome (Caesar notes that he had learned of the murder of a leading Roman political figure, Clodius [Gallic War, 7.1]), and the events about to unfold in Gaul itself. Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. Silanus was defeated. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum [Caius Julius Caesar, Commentaries on His Achievements]. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. His power superseded all other magistrates in a military (and occasionally domestic) crisis. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. Exposing himself to the same risks as his troops, he won their confidence and trust. In office for 18 months, they took the census, controlled public morals, and had the right to expel senators from the Senate. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. The narrator has obvious familiarity with the work hence rarely misspeaks or mispronounces names or terms. In addition, the narrator's voice is a perfect match for conveying Caesar's writings. The Battle for Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War]. The ring-leader, Acco, is flogged to death in accordance with Roman custom, and Caesar heads back to Italy. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). — The opening line, immortalised in Latin language classes. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. : Harvard University Press, 1987. had a special interest in word forms. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). In the absence of Caesar, the cavalry of a west Germanic group, the Sugambri, attack Cicero’s camp. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. The Roman Army B. Britain Indexes Maps And Plans Their complex systems of patronage and factional alliances allowed them to influence public assemblies, fix elections, and control access to the magistracies (political offices). Setting out for Britain from Ports Etuis (perhaps today’s Bologna), he leads an army of 2,000 cavalry and five legions (approximately 25,000 infantry soldiers). Thereafter, he occupied a series of political offices: military tribune in 72 bce, quaestor in Spain in 69 bce, aedile in 65 bce. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. Seven “books,” which are in fact parts of a single book, make up Commentaries on the Gallic War.

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